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用PyTorch训练一个图像分类

该文章创建(更新)于07/29/2020,请注意文章的时效性!

缘由

安装PyTorch后就想尝试能不能跑着玩玩,就在官网看到了一个训练图像分类器的小教程;

纯CPU运算

import torch
import torchvision
import torchvision.transforms as transforms
from datetime import datetime

transform = transforms.Compose(
    [transforms.ToTensor(),
     transforms.Normalize((0.5, 0.5, 0.5), (0.5, 0.5, 0.5))])

trainset = torchvision.datasets.CIFAR10(root='./data', train=True,
                                        download=True, transform=transform)
trainloader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(trainset, batch_size=4,
                                          shuffle=True, num_workers=0)

testset = torchvision.datasets.CIFAR10(root='./data', train=False,
                                       download=True, transform=transform)
testloader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(testset, batch_size=4,
                                         shuffle=False, num_workers=0)

classes = ('plane', 'car', 'bird', 'cat',
           'deer', 'dog', 'frog', 'horse', 'ship', 'truck')

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

# functions to show an image


def imshow(img):
    img = img / 2 + 0.5     # unnormalize
    npimg = img.numpy()
    plt.imshow(np.transpose(npimg, (1, 2, 0)))
    plt.show()


# get some random training images
dataiter = iter(trainloader)
images, labels = dataiter.next()

# show images
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images))
# print labels
print(' '.join('%5s' % classes[labels[j]] for j in range(4)))

import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F


class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, 6, 5)
        self.pool = nn.MaxPool2d(2, 2)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(6, 16, 5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(16 * 5 * 5, 120)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(120, 84)
        self.fc3 = nn.Linear(84, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv1(x)))
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv2(x)))
        x = x.view(-1, 16 * 5 * 5)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        x = self.fc3(x)
        return x


net = Net()

import torch.optim as optim

criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimizer = optim.SGD(net.parameters(), lr=0.001, momentum=0.9)


startTime = datetime.now()
for epoch in range(25):  # loop over the dataset multiple times

    running_loss = 0.0
    for i, data in enumerate(trainloader, 0):
        # get the inputs; data is a list of [inputs, labels]
        inputs, labels = data

        # zero the parameter gradients
        optimizer.zero_grad()

        # forward + backward + optimize
        outputs = net(inputs)
        loss = criterion(outputs, labels)
        loss.backward()
        optimizer.step()

        # print statistics
        running_loss += loss.item()
        if i % 2000 == 1999:    # print every 2000 mini-batches
            print('[%d, %5d] loss: %.3f' %
                  (epoch + 1, i + 1, running_loss / 2000))
            running_loss = 0.0

print('Finished Training')
print("Time taken:", datetime.now() - startTime)




PATH = './cifar_net.pth'
torch.save(net.state_dict(), PATH)

dataiter = iter(testloader)
images, labels = dataiter.next()

# print images
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images))
print('GroundTruth: ', ' '.join('%5s' % classes[labels[j]] for j in range(4)))

net = Net()
net.load_state_dict(torch.load(PATH))

outputs = net(images)

_, predicted = torch.max(outputs, 1)

print('Predicted: ', ' '.join('%5s' % classes[predicted[j]]
                              for j in range(4)))

correct = 0
total = 0
with torch.no_grad():
    for data in testloader:
        images, labels = data
        outputs = net(images)
        _, predicted = torch.max(outputs.data, 1)
        total += labels.size(0)
        correct += (predicted == labels).sum().item()

print('Accuracy of the network on the 10000 test images: %d %%' % (
    100 * correct / total))

class_correct = list(0. for i in range(10))
class_total = list(0. for i in range(10))
with torch.no_grad():
    for data in testloader:
        images, labels = data
        outputs = net(images)
        _, predicted = torch.max(outputs, 1)
        c = (predicted == labels).squeeze()
        for i in range(4):
            label = labels[i]
            class_correct[label] += c[i].item()
            class_total[label] += 1


for i in range(10):
    print('Accuracy of %5s : %2d %%' % (
        classes[i], 100 * class_correct[i] / class_total[i]))

使用GPU运算

  • 区别

相比于CPU运算就多了一个把参数和缓冲区转换为CUDA张量,同时把每一步的输入和目标也发送到GPU;

device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")

# Assuming that we are on a CUDA machine, this should print a CUDA device:

print(device)
net.to(device)
inputs, labels = data[0].to(device), data[1].to(device)
  • 所有代码
import torch
import torchvision
import torchvision.transforms as transforms
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.optim as optim
from datetime import datetime

PATH = './cifar_net.pth'  # 保存模型地址

transform = transforms.Compose(
    [transforms.ToTensor(),
     transforms.Normalize((0.5, 0.5, 0.5), (0.5, 0.5, 0.5))])

trainset = torchvision.datasets.CIFAR10(root='./data', train=True,
                                        download=True, transform=transform)
trainloader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(trainset, batch_size=4,
                                          shuffle=True, num_workers=0)

testset = torchvision.datasets.CIFAR10(root='./data', train=False,
                                       download=True, transform=transform)
testloader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(testset, batch_size=4,
                                         shuffle=False, num_workers=0)

classes = ('plane', 'car', 'bird', 'cat',
           'deer', 'dog', 'frog', 'horse', 'ship', 'truck')


device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")

# Assuming that we are on a CUDA machine, this should print a CUDA device:

print(device)

print("获取一些随机训练数据")
# get some random training images
dataiter = iter(trainloader)
images, labels = dataiter.next()


# functions to show an image
def imshow(img):
    img = img / 2 + 0.5     # unnormalize
    npimg = img.numpy()
    plt.imshow(np.transpose(npimg, (1, 2, 0)))
    plt.show()


# show images
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images))
# print labels
print(' '.join('%5s' % classes[labels[j]] for j in range(4)))
print("**********************")

class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, 6, 5)
        self.pool = nn.MaxPool2d(2, 2)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(6, 16, 5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(16 * 5 * 5, 120)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(120, 84)
        self.fc3 = nn.Linear(84, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv1(x)))
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv2(x)))
        x = x.view(-1, 16 * 5 * 5)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        x = self.fc3(x)
        return x

net = Net()
net.to(device)


# 训练
print("训练")
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimizer = optim.SGD(net.parameters(), lr=0.001, momentum=0.9)

startTime = datetime.now()
for epoch in range(25):  # loop over the dataset multiple times
    running_loss = 0.0
    for i, data in enumerate(trainloader, 0):
        # get the inputs; data is a list of [inputs, labels]
#         inputs, labels = data

        inputs, labels = data[0].to(device), data[1].to(device)

        # zero the parameter gradients
        optimizer.zero_grad()

        # forward + backward + optimize
        outputs = net(inputs)
        loss = criterion(outputs, labels)
        loss.backward()
        optimizer.step()

        # print statistics
        running_loss += loss.item()
        if i % 2000 == 1999:    # print every 2000 mini-batches
            print('[%d, %5d] loss: %.3f' %
                  (epoch + 1, i + 1, running_loss / 2000))
            running_loss = 0.0

torch.save(net.state_dict(), PATH)

print('Finished Training')
print("Time taken:", datetime.now() - startTime)
print("***************************")



#获取一些随机测试数据
print("获取一些随机测试数据")
dataiter = iter(testloader)
images, labels = dataiter.next()

# print images
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images))
print('GroundTruth: ', ' '.join('%5s' % classes[labels[j]] for j in range(4)))

# 恢复模型并测试
net = Net()
net.load_state_dict(torch.load(PATH))

outputs = net(images)

_, predicted = torch.max(outputs, 1)

print('Predicted: ', ' '.join('%5s' % classes[predicted[j]]
                              for j in range(4)))

print("**********************")
print("输出训练得到的准确度")
# 输出训练得到的准确度
correct = 0
total = 0
with torch.no_grad():
    for data in testloader:
        images, labels = data
        outputs = net(images)
        _, predicted = torch.max(outputs.data, 1)
        total += labels.size(0)
        correct += (predicted == labels).sum().item()

print('Accuracy of the network on the 10000 test images: %d %%' % (
    100 * correct / total))

class_correct = list(0. for i in range(10))
class_total = list(0. for i in range(10))
with torch.no_grad():
    for data in testloader:
        images, labels = data
        outputs = net(images)
        _, predicted = torch.max(outputs, 1)
        c = (predicted == labels).squeeze()
        for i in range(4):
            label = labels[i]
            class_correct[label] += c[i].item()
            class_total[label] += 1

for i in range(10):
    print('Accuracy of %5s : %2d %%' % (
        classes[i], 100 * class_correct[i] / class_total[i]))

对比

  • 电脑规格

16G内存 + I5-8300H + NVIDIA 1050 (2GB)

  • 对比
对比项纯CPUGPU
系统资源占用
准确度60 %61 %
训练时间0:38:46.2967440:31:53.045915

总的来说GPU运算得时间更少,总体精度更高,但在单个物体所获得的识别率精度较大,但GPU利用率相比Tensorflow(以往miniest训练数据,仅供参考)太低了,这个只用了0.4G(CPU占用率为30%左右),TF则用了1.8G(CPU占用率80%左右);

感觉

  • 已经忘了Tensorflow是如何调用GPU的,应该记得不错是直接调用的吧?不需要我们去设置什么东西,这个得把参数等等给转变成 CUDA tensors;具体就不清楚了,两个都不咋了解;
  • 这个GPU训练占用CPU和GPU相比Tensorflow太低了?具体得弄一个miniest来测试,训练不一样没有太多实际参考价值,Tensoflow之前是用miniest测试的,但以前得代码跑不起来了(不兼容),尬!
Tensorflow(miniest)Pytorch(图像分类器)

说明

  • 以上Tensorflow和PyTorch的对比是训练的不同的模型,同时TensorFlow的训练并非最新版的Tensorflow,以往的代码已无法运行;

参考


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https://www.emperinter.info/2020/07/29/training-a-classifier-by-pytorch/


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